Why Did The Munich Agreement Fail

Why Did The Munich Agreement Fail

During World War II, British Prime Minister Churchill, who rejected the agreement when it was signed, decided that the terms of the agreement would not be respected after the war and that the Sudetenland territories should be returned to post-war Czechoslovakia. On August 5, 1942, Secretary of State Anthony Eden sent the following note to Jan Masaryk: The nuclear deal was “worse than Munich,” Bret Stephens claimed on the opinion pages of the Wall Street Journal. To refresh your memory, the Munich Accords were signed on September 30, 1938 between Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, France and the United Kingdom. The agreement allowed Hitler to peacefully annex large parts of German-inhabited Czechoslovakia. In international relations, the Munich lesson refers to Adolf Hitler`s appeasement at the Munich Conference in September 1938. To avoid war, France and Great Britain authorized the German annexation of the Sudetenland. The policy of appeasement underestimated Hitler`s ambitions and believed that sufficient concessions would guarantee a lasting peace. [1] Today, it is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement of Germany and a great diplomatic triumph for Hitler. [Weasel Words] The agreement facilitated the German takeover of Czechoslovakia and led Hitler to believe that the Western Allies would not risk war against Poland the following year. The Czechoslovaks were appalled by the colony of Munich.

They were not invited to the conference and felt betrayed by the British and French governments. Many Czechs and Slovaks refer to the Munich Agreement as the Munich diktat (Czech: Mnichovský diktát; Slovak: Mníchovský diktát). The term “betrayal of Munich” (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Slovak: Mníchovská zrada) is also used because Czechoslovakia`s military alliance with France proved useless. This was also reflected in the fact that the French government in particular had expressed the opinion that Czechoslovakia would be held responsible for a European war that would result if the Czechoslovak Republic defended itself by force against German incursions. [59] In 1938, the Soviet Union was allied with France and Czechoslovakia. By September 1939, the Soviets were in every way a comrade-in-arms of Nazi Germany, with Stalin fearing a second Munich Agreement with the Soviet Union, replacing Czechoslovakia. Thus, the agreement indirectly contributed to the outbreak of war in 1939. [60] Today, the Munich Accords are widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement, and the term has become “the quintessence of the futility of appeasement of expansionist totalitarian states.” [5] The Munich Accords (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; German: Munich Agreement) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded in Munich on September 30, 1938 by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. It provided for the “cession of the Sudeten German territory” from Czechoslovakia to Germany.

[1] Most European countries celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing the annexation of the Sudetenland by Nazi Germany, a region in western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking. Hitler proclaimed this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement. Praised as the savior of the world in the Munich era, he (Chamberlain) was heavily criticized from all directions when only six months later German tanks entered Prague. According to Andrew Stedman, Chamberlain was characterized as one of the men who allowed Britain to reach its lowest political, military and moral low tide – a naïve leader who was deceived by Hitler and failed to adequately prepare his people for the horrors they faced. .

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